Pooled or group testing is a testing strategy where samples from a number of individuals are aggregated into a single sample (or pool), which is then tested for the disease or agent of interest. Pooled testing strategies have been proposed for identification of infected individuals (classification), for demonstration of herd or area infection status and for estimation of prevalence of infection.

The utilities provided on this web-site are designed to assist with the estimation of prevalence from the testing pof pooled samples. When used for this purpose, individual samples are aggregated into pools for testing. Individual-level prevalence is then estimated based on the number of individuals represented in each pool and the test result for that pool. Estimation methods are provided for both fixed and variable pool size and to adjust estimates for imperfect sensitivity and specificity of the test used.

Pooled testing has some significant advantages over individual testing. In particular, pooled testing provides:

- significant cost savings, particularly where the cost of collecting additional samples is small relative to the cost of the test or if prevalence is low;
- increased precision of estimates compared to individual testing where the same number of tests is undertaken, particularly if prevalence is less than about 30%;
- increased precision of estimates compared to individual testing where test sensitivity and/or specificity are less than 1; and
- reduced bias in estimates when assumed values for sensitivity and specificity are not equal to the true values.

Pooled testing strategies also have a number of disadvantages, including:

- logistical requirements and cost for pooling of samples, either in the laboratory or in the field;
- the requirement of some strategies for re-testing of samples from positive pools either as smaller pools or individually, increasing requirements for sample volumes, storage and handling;
- the possible effect of dilution on test performance, particularly test sensitivity cannot be ignored, and any appropriate for imperfect sensitivity should include consideration of any effect of dilution on test sensitivity;
- estimates may be biased to a variable degree, depending on prevalence, number of pools and pool size; and
- The methods depend on a number of major assumptions, and may result in biased estimates if the assumptions are violated. These assumptions include that:
- the outcome is assumed to follow a binomial distribution - clustering or overdispersion of the positive outcome can result in substantial bias in the resulting estimate;
- sample size is small compared to the population;
- the health status of each individual is independent of the status of others, both within and between pools;
- test sensitivity and specificity are 100% (for some methods);
- samples are assumed to be mixed homogeneously in the pools and any sub-samples taken for testing are equally representative of all of the individuals contributing to each pool; and
- all pools represent the same number of individuals (except for the variable pool-size method).

Additional utilities are also provided for the estimation of true prevalence based on testing of individual samples (unpooled) using either one or two tests of inperfect and uncertain sensitivity and specificity. These utilities use Bayesian methods to account for uncertainty about the true values of sensitivity and specificity for the test(s) used.

« Previous Next »

1-sample z-test for a population proportion

1-Stage Freedom analysis

2-sample t-test for summary data

2-sample z-test to compare sample proportion

2-Stage surveys for demonstration of freedom

Analyse test repeatability

Analyse two-stage prevalence data

Analysis of 2-stage freedom survey data

Analysis of simple 2-stage freedom survey

Bioequivalence analysis - two-period, two-treatment crossover trial

Calculate Cluster-level sensitivity and specificity for range of sample sizes and cut-points for given cluster size and imperfect tests

Calculate confidence limits for a sample proportion

Calculate sample sizes for 2-stage freedom survey where individual cluster details are available

Calculate sample sizes for 2-stage freedom survey where individual cluster details are NOT available

Calculate sample sizes for 2-stage freedom survey with fixed cluster-level sensitivity

Calculate test Sensitivity and Specificity and ROC curves

Capture-Recapture analysis

Chi-squared test for contingency table from original data

Chi-squared test for homogeneity of a sample

Chi-squared test for r x c contingency table

Chi-squared test for trend

Cluster-level sensitivity and specificity with variable cut-points

Compare prevalence values

Compare two tests

Complex 2-stage risk-based surveillance - calculation of surveillance sample size

Complex 2-stage risk-based surveillance - calculation of surveillance sensitivity

Complex 2-stage risk-based surveillance - calculation of surveillance sensitivity based on herd testing data

Complex risk-based surveillance - calculation of surveillance sample size

Complex risk-based surveillance - calculation of surveillance sensitivity

Confidence of population freedom (NPV) for a surveillance system

Confidence of population freedom for multiple time periods

Contact

Design prevalence required to achieve target population (cluster or system) sensitivity

Diagnostic test evaluation and comparison

Estimate 95% confidence limits for a median

Estimate alpha and beta Parameters for Beta distributions from count data

Estimate confidence limits for a mean

Estimate parameters for multiple Beta probability distributions or summarise distributions for specified parameters

Estimated true prevalence and predictive values from survey testing

Estimated true prevalence using one test with a Gibbs sampler

Estimated true prevalence using two tests with a Gibbs sampler

Estimating prevalence

Estimation of alpha and beta parameters for prior Beta distributions

"EUFMD - Demonstration of FMD freedom": 2-stage risk-based surveillance with 1 herd-level risk factor, 1 animal-level risk factor and multiple surveillance components

FreeCalc: Analyse results of freedom testing

FreeCalc: Calculate sample size for freedom testing with imperfect tests

Get P and critical values for the Chi-squared distribution

Get P and critical values for the F distribution

Get P and critical values for the normal distribution

Get P and critical values for the t distribution

Glossary

HerdPlus utilities

HerdPlus: Calculate SeH and SpH for a single herd

HerdPlus: SeH and SpH comparison for varying herd sizes

HerdPlus: SeH and SpH for listed herd sizes and optimised sample sizes

HerdPlus: SeH and SpH for optimised sample sizes for range of herd sizes

HerdPlus: SeH and SpH for range of sample sizes and cut-points for given herd size

HerdPlus: SeH and SpH for varying sample sizes

HerdPlus: SeH for fixed sample size and cut-point

HerdPlus: SeH for optimised sampling strategy

HerdPlus: SeH for varying design prevalence

Home

Likelihood ratios and probability of infection in a tested individual

Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test for stratified 2 by 2 tables

McNemar's chi-squared test for association of paired counts

Numbers of false positives to a test

One-sample test to compare sample mean or median to population estimate

Paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed rank test on numeric data

Pooled Prevalence

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 1

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 2

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 3

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 4

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 5

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 6

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 7

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 8

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 9

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 10

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 11

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 12

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 13

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 14

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 15

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 16

Pooled Prevalence Calculator - Demonstration analyses - 17

Pooled prevalence for fixed pool size and perfect tests

Pooled prevalence for fixed pool size and tests with known sensitivity and specificity

Pooled prevalence for fixed pool size and tests with uncertain sensitivity and specificity

Pooled prevalence for variable pool size and perfect tests

Pooled prevalence using a Gibbs sampler

Population (or cluster) sensitivity for varying unit sensitivity

Population level (or herd, flock, cluster, or other grouping) sensitivity

Population or cluster level sensitivity using pooled sampling

Positive and Negative Predictive Values for a test

Probability of infection in a test-negative sample

Random Geographic Coordinates Sampling

Random Number Sampling

Random sampling from a sampling frame

Random sampling from populations

Random sampling of animals

References

Risk-based surveillance

Sample size calculation for fixed pool size and perfect tests

Sample size calculation for fixed pool size and uncertain sensitivity and specificity

Sample size calculations

Sample size for a case-control study

Sample size for a cohort study

Sample size for demonstration of freedom (detection of disease) using pooled testing

Sample Size for survival analysis to compare median times since last outbreak

Sample size required to achieve target confidence of freedom

Sample size to achieve specified population level (or herd, flock, cluster, etc) sensitivity

Sample size to detect a significant difference between 2 means with equal sample sizes and variances

Sample size to detect a significant difference between 2 means with unequal sample sizes and variances

Sample size to detect a significant difference between 2 proportions

Sample size to estimate a proportion or apparent prevalence with specified precision

Sample size to estimate a single mean with specified precision

Sample size to estimate a true prevalence with an imperfect test

Sample size to estimate a true prevalence with an imperfect test

Simple 2-stage risk-based surveillance - calculation of sample size

Simple 2-stage risk-based surveillance - calculation of surveillance sensitivity

Simple 2-stage risk-based surveillance - calculation of surveillance sensitivity based on herd testing data

Simple risk-based surveillance - calculation of minimum detectable prevalence

Simple risk-based surveillance - calculation of sample size

Simple risk-based surveillance - calculation of surveillance sensitivity

Simple risk-based surveillance with differential sensitivity - calculation of sample size with two sensitivity groups

Simple risk-based surveillance with differential sensitivity - calculation of surveillance sensitivity

Simulate sampling for fixed pool size and assumed known test sensitivity and specificity

Simulate sampling for fixed pool size and assumed perfect test

Simulate sampling for fixed pool size and uncertain test sensitivity and specificity

Simulate sampling for variable pool sizes

Simulated true prevalence estimates from survey testing with an imperfect test

Statistical analysis of numeric data

Stochastic analysis of 2-stage freedom survey data

Summarise Beta probability distributions for specified alpha and beta parameters

Summarise Binomial probability distributions for specified sample size and probability

Summarise categorical or continuous data

Summarise continuous data (ungrouped)

Summarise continuous data by single grouping variable

Summarise measures of association from a 2x2 table

Summarise Pert probability distributions for specified minimum, mode and maximum values

Summarise probability distributions

Survey Toolbox for livestock diseases

Survival analysis of herd incidence data

Test evaluation against a gold standard

User guide - Home

User guide 1 - Introduction

User guide 2 - Overview

User guide 3 - Bayesian vs frequentist methods

User guide 4 - Pooled prevalence for fixed pool size and perfect tests

User guide 5 - Pooled prevalence for fixed pool size and tests with known sensitivity and specificity

User guide 6 - Pooled prevalence for fixed pool size and tests with uncertain sensitivity and specificity

User guide 7 - Pooled prevalence for variable pool size and perfect tests

User guide 8 - Pooled prevalence using a Gibbs sampler

User guide 9 - Estimated true prevalence using one test with a Gibbs sampler

User guide 10 - Estimated true prevalence using two tests with a Gibbs sampler

User guide 11 - Estimation of alpha and beta parameters for prior Beta distributions and summarisation of Beta distributions for specified alpha and beta parameters

User guide 12 - Sample size for fixed pool size and perfect test

User guide 13 - Sample size for fixed pool size and known test sensitivity and specificity

User guide 14 - Sample size for fixed pool size and uncertain test sensitivity and specificity

User guide 15 - Simulate sampling for fixed pool size

User guide 16 - Simulate sampling for variable pool sizes

User guide 17 - Important Assumptions

User guide 18 - Pooled prevalence estimates are biased!