Input Values


This page calculates the sample size for simple riskbased surveillance with one factor affecting test sensitivity.
For example, a survey in which a high risk subpopulation is preferentially targeted and where
two levels of test sensitivity are possible.
This analysis assumes that there is no clustering of disease (for instance, we are
working at the herd level), and that the effective specificity of the surveillance
system is equal to one (all positives are followed up to ensure that they are not
false positives).
One risk factor is considered, for which the following information is required:
 The relative risk: this measures the risk of animals (or herds) being infected in the highrisk
group, relative to the risk of animals (herds) being infected in the lowrisk group. For riskbased
surveillance, this should usually be greater than 1.
 The population proportion: this is the proportion of herds/animals from the entire population
that are in the highrisk group.
 The surveillance proportion: this is the target proportion of herds/animals from the surveillance
that are in the highrisk group.
In addition, the following parameters are required:
 The design prevalence: this is the assumed prevalence of disease, if the disease is
present in the population. It is used as a standard by which the sensitivity of the surveillance
can be evaluated.
 The individual unit (herd or animal) test sensitivity for both highsensitivity and lowsensitivity groups
 The target proportion of herds/animals in the highrisk group to be tested with the higher sensitivity test.
 The target proportion of herds/animals in the lowrisk group to be tested with the higher sensitivity test.
 The target surveillance sensitivity: the
probability that the surveillance system would detect at least one infected animal if disease
was present at the specified design prevalence.
Outputs include:
 The required sample size for the surveillance system, for highsensitivity and lowsensitivity groups
in each risk group and totals.
 For comparison, the total sample size if representative sampling were used.
 The percentage reduction in sample size achieved by using riskbased sampling.
 The effective probability of infection (EPI) for the highrisk and lowrisk groups. EPI values approaching 100% suggest
that, based on the values used for relative risk, population proportions and design prevalence, close to 100% of herds (or animals) in the highrisk group are
expected to be infected. If this is unreasonable you may need to review the input values.
Values over 100% mean that the model is invalid and processing will be stopped, with an error message.
Input values must be changed to ensure EPI values are appropriate.
