# References

## Epitools methodology

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Cameron AR, and Baldock FC, 1998. A new probability formula for surveys to substantiate
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Cameron AR, 1999. *Survey Toolbox for Livestock Diseases - A practical manual and
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paradoxes. *J. Clin. Epidemiol. ***43**: 551-558.

Gardner IA, 2000. Application of diagnostic tests in epidemiologic studies.
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Gardner IA, Stryhn H, Lind P, Collins MT, 2000. Conditional dependence between
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Humphry RW, Cameron A, Gunn GJ, 2004. A practical approach to calculate sample size for
herd prevalence surveys. *Prev. Vet. Med.* 65: 173-188.

Jordan D, McEwen SA, 1998. Herd-level test performance based on uncertain estimates
of individual test performance, individual true prevalence and herd true
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Joseph L, Gyorkos TW, Coupal L, 1995. Bayesian estimation of disease prevalence
and the parameters of diagnostic tests in the absence of a gold standard. *Am. J. Epidemiol.* 141: 263-272.

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Martin et el. 1992. *Prev. Vet. Med.* **14**: 33-43.

Reiczigel, Földi and Òzsvári (2010). Exact confidence limits for
prevalence of a disease with an imperfect diagnostic test,
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Richards MS, 1983. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, pp 567-570.

Rogan and Gladen 1978. Estimating prevalence from the results of a screening test.
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Suess EA, Gardner IA, Johnson WO, 2002. Hierarchical Bayesian model for prevalence inferences and determination of a country's status for an animal pathogen. *Prev. Vet. Med.* 55: 155-171.

Thrusfield M, 1996. Veterinary Epidemiology. 2nd Edition. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.

Vose D, 2000. *Risk Analysis - A quantitative guide.* 2nd edition. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, England.

## Epitools applications

European Food Safety authority, 2009. Porcine brucellosis(*Brucella suis*).
Scientific opinion of the Panel on animal Health and Welfare. *The EFSA Juournal* 1144: 1-112.

Curran, JM, 2012. The surveillance and risk assessment of wild birds in northern Australia for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus. PhD thesis, Murdoch University. Available at: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/8587/.

Nielsen, LR, 2012. Salmonella Dublin in cattle: Epidemiology, design and evaluation of surveillance and eradication programmes. Dr. med. vet. thesis. Department of Large Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Available at: https://dl.dropbox.com/u/13522390/Doctoral%20thesis%20Liza%20Part%201%2013082012%201-sidigt%20format.pdf

Andreassen A, et al., 2012. Prevalence of tick borne encephalitis virus in tick nymphs in relation to climatic factors on the southern coast of Norway.
*Parasites & Vectors* **5**:177

## Pooled prevalence methodology

Cowling DW, Gardner IA, Johnson WO, 1999. Comparison of methods for estimation of individual-level prevalence based on pooled samples. *Prev. Vet. Med.* 39: 211-25.

Joseph L, Gyorkos TW, Coupal L, 1995. Bayesian estimation of disease prevalence and the parameters of diagnostic tests in the absence of a gold standard. *Am. J. Epidemiol.* 141: 263-272.

Mendoza-Blanco JR, Tu XM, Iyengar S, 1996. Bayesian inference on prevalence using a missing-data approach with simulation-based techniques: applications to HIV screening. *Stat. Med.* 15: 2161-2176.

Messam LLMcV, Branscum AJ, Collins MT, Gardner IA, 2008. Frequentist and Bayesian approaches to prevalence estimation using examples from Johne's disease. *Animal Health Research Reviews* 9: 1-23.

Sacks JM, Bolin S, Crowder SV, 1989. Prevalence estimation from pooled samples. *Am. J. Vet. Res.* 50: 205-206.

Suess EA, Gardner IA, Johnson WO, 2002. Hierarchical Bayesian model for prevalence inferences and determination of a country's status for an animal pathogen. *Prev. Vet. Med.* 55: 155-171.

Vose D, 2000. *Risk Analysis - A quantitative guide.* 2nd edition. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, England.

Williams CJ, Moffitt CM, 2001. A critique of methods of sampling and reporting pathogens in populations of fish. *Journal of Aquatic Animal Health* 13: 300-309.

Worlund DD, Taylor G, 1983. Estimation of disease incidence in fish populations. *Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences* 40: 2194-2197.

## Pooled prevalence applications

Dhand NK, Eppleston J, Whittington RJ, Toribio JA, 2007. Risk factors for ovine Johne's disease in infected sheep flocks in Australia. *Prev. Vet. Med.* 82: 51-71.

Messam LLMcV, Branscum AJ, Collins MT, Gardner IA, 2008. Frequentist and Bayesian approaches to prevalence estimation using examples from Johne's disease. *Animal Health Research Reviews* 9: 1-23.

Reddacliff L, Eppleston J, Windsor P, Whittington R, Jones S, 2006. Efficacy of a killed vaccine for the control of paratuberculosis in Australian sheep flocks. *Vet. Microbiol.* 115: 77-90.

Toribio J-ALML, Sergeant ESG, 2007. A comparison of methods to estimate the prevalence of ovine Johne's disease infection from pooled faecal samples. *Aust. Vet. J.* 85: 317-324.